Second Edition

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Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers
Karl J. Åström and Richard M. Murray

Welcome to FBSwiki. This is the wiki for the Second Edition of text Feedback Systems by Karl J. Åström and Richard M. Murray.

This book provides an introduction to the basic principles and tools for the design and analysis of feedback systems. It is intended to serve a diverse audience of scientists and engineers who are interested in understanding and utilizing feedback in physical, biological, information and social systems. A major goal of this book is to present a concise and insightful view of the current knowledge in feedback and control systems. In developing this book, we have attempted to condense the current knowledge by emphasizing fundamental concepts. We believe that it is important to understand why feedback is useful, to know the language and basic mathematics of control and to grasp the key paradigms that have been developed over the past half century. It is also important to be able to solve simple feedback problems using back-of-the-envelope techniques, to recognize fundamental limitations and difficult control problems and to have a feel for available design methods.

This page corresponds to the Second Edition of FBS. The first edition is also available. Copyright in this book is held by Princeton University Press, who have kindly agreed to allow us to keep the book available on the web.

News (archive)

Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Introduction (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • What Is Feedback?
    • What is Feedforward?
    • What Is Control?
    • Use of Feedback and Control
    • Feedback Properties
    • Simple Forms of Feedback
    • Combining Feedback with Logic
    • Control System Architectures
  • Chapter 2 - Feedback Principles (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Nonlinear Static Models
    • Linear Dynamical Models
    • Using Feedback to Improve Disturbance Attenuation
    • Using Feedback to Track Reference Signals
    • Using Feedback to Provide Robustness
    • Positive Feedback
    • Feedback and Feedforward
  • Chapter 3 - System Modeling (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Modeling Concepts
    • State Space Models
    • Modeling Methodology
    • Modeling Examples
  • Chapter 4 - Examples (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Cruise Control
    • Bicycle Dynamics
    • Operational Amplifier Circuits
    • Computing Systems and Networks
    • Atomic Force Microscopy
    • Drug Administration
    • Population Dynamics
  • Chapter 5 - Dynamic Behavior (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Solving Differential Equations
    • Qualitative Analysis
    • Stability
    • Lyapunov Stability Analysis
    • Parametric and Nonlocal Behavior
  • Chapter 6 - Linear Systems (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Basic Definitions
    • The Matrix Exponential
    • Input/Output Response
    • Linearization
  • Chapter 7 - State Feedback (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Reachability
    • Stabilization by State Feedback
    • State Feedback Design
    • Integral Action
  • Chapter 8 - Output Feedback (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Observability
    • State Estimation
    • Control Using Estimated State
    • Kalman Filtering
    • A General Controller Structure
  • Chapter 9 - Transfer Functions (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Frequency Domain Modeling
    • Derivation of the Transfer Function
    • Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions
    • The Bode Plot
    • Laplace Transforms
  • Chapter 10 - Frequency Domain Analysis (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • The Loop Transfer Function
    • The Nyquist Criterion
    • Stability Margins
    • Bode’s Relations and Minimum Phase Systems
    • Generalized Notions of Gain and Phase
  • Chapter 11 - PID Control (PDF, 17 Aug 2019)
    • Basic Control Functions
    • Simple Controllers for Complex Systems
    • PID Tuning
    • Integrator Windup
    • Implementation
  • Chapter 12 - Frequency Domain Design (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Sensitivity Functions
    • Feedforward Design
    • Performance Specifications
    • Feedforward Design
    • Feedback Design via Loop Shaping
    • The Root-Locus Method
    • Design Example
  • Chapter 13 - Robust Performance (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Modeling Uncertainty
    • Stability in the Presence of Uncertainty
    • Performance in the Presence of Uncertainty
    • Design for Robust Performance
  • Chapter 14 - Fundamental Limits (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Effects of Design Decisions
    • Nonlinear Effects
    • Bode’s Integral Formula
    • Gain Crossover Frequency Inequality
    • The Maximum Modulus Principle
    • Robust Pole Placement
  • Chapter 15 - Architecture and System Design (PDF, 24 Jul 2020)
    • Introduction
    • Systems and Control Design
    • Top-Down Architectures
    • Bottom-Up Architectures
    • Interaction
    • Adaptation, Learning and Cognition
    • Control Design in Common Application Fields



Other versions

  • Complete book (PDF, 24 Jul 2020) - single PDF file (35 MB)
  • iPad version (not yet available) - reduced margins