Linear Systems
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Previous chapters have focused on the dynamics of a system with relatively little attention to the inputs and outputs. This chapter gives an introduction to input/output behavior for linear systems and shows how a nonlinear system can be approximated near an equilibrium point by a linear model.
Textbook Contents

Lecture MaterialsSupplemental Information

Chapter Summary
This chapter introduces the analysis tools for linear input/output systems.

A linear system is one in which the output is jointly linear in the intitial condition for the system and the input to the system. In particular, a linear system has the property that if we apply an input with zero initial condition, the corresponding output will be , where is the output associated with the input . This propery is called linear superposition.
A differential equation of the form
is a singleinput, singleoutput (SISO) linear differential equation. Its solution can be written in terms of the matrix exponential
The solution to the differential equation is given by the convolution equation
A linear system
is asymptotically stable if and only if all eigenvalues of all have strictly negative real part and is unstable if any eigenvalue of has strictly positive real part. For systems with eigenvalues having zero realpart, stability is determined by using the Jordan normal form associated with the matrix. A system with eigenvalues that have no strickly positive real part is stable if and only if the Jordan block corresponding to each eigenvalue with zero part is a scalar (1x1) block. The input/output response of a (stable) linear system contains a transient region portion, which eventually decays to zero, and a steady state portion, which persists over time. Two special responses are the step response, which is the output corresponding to an step input applied at and the frequency response, which is the response of the system to a sinusoidal input at a given frequency.
The step response is characterized by the following parameters:
 The steady state value, , of a step response is the final level of the output, assuming it converges.
 The rise time, , is the amount of time required for the signal to go from 10% of its final value to 90% of its final value.
 The overshoot, , is the percentage of the infal value by which the signal initially rises above the final value.
 The settling time, , is the amount of time required for the signal to stay within 5% of its final value for all future times.
The frequency response is given by
where and . The gain and phase of the frequency response are given by
A nonlinear system of the form
is a singleinput, singleoutput (SISO) nonlinear system. It can be linearized about an equibrium point , , by defining new variables
The dynamics of the system near the equilibrium point can then be approximated by the linear system
where
The equilibrium point for a nonlinear system is locally asymptotically stable if the real part of the eigenvalues of the linearization about that equilibrium point have strictly negative real part.
Exercises
Frequently Asked Questions
 FAQ: Are the percentages in the definition of rise time, overshoot measured from the final value, or the size of the input change?
 FAQ: How do you show that exp(T S inv(T)) = T exp(S) inv(T)?
 FAQ: In Example 5.3, why is the A matrix in the given form?
 FAQ: What is an example of a system with Re(λ)=0 that is not stable? What if Im(λ) is not zero?
 FAQ: What is steady state error?
Errata
 Errata: Extraneous text "!linear" in Section 5.1
 Errata: In equation (5.5), the upper limit of the integral should be t
 Errata: In Example 5.3, dot missing from q in middle term of displayed equation for dynamics with damping
 Errata: In Example 5.3, omega d should have terms in the square root reversed
 Errata: In Figure 5.3, state labels are incorrect
 Errata: In Example 5.4, there is a sign error in one of the terms
 Errata: Example 5.5 includes a damping term not shown in Figure 5.4
 Errata: In Example 5.5 and 5.6, m1 and m2 should be m
 Errata: At end of Example 5.5, eigenvalue approximations are incorrect
 Errata: At end of Example 5.5, real part of eigenvalues has incorrect sign
 Errata: In Examples 5.5 and 5.6, dynamics in modal form should use z, not x
 Errata: Equation (5.15) is linear in the initial conditions and *input*
 Errata: Impulse response does not include the direct term in the proper manner
 Errata: In the complex input u = exp(s t), s should be i omega, not i omega t
 Errata: In Example 5.8, the third nodal equation should be deleted
 Errata: The labels for v2 and v3 are misplaced in Figure 5.12
 Errata: In AFM dynamics, c and k are missing subscript 2
 Errata: In equation (5.26), the u(k) term in the integral should be u(tau)
 Errata: Missing factor of A in second term of equation (5.26)
 Errata: Missing factor of B in displayed equation after equation (5.28)
 Errata: After equation (5.31), rolling friction term disappears if v = 0
 Errata: In Example 5.12, expression nonequilibrium condition has wrong symbols
 Errata: Parameter values are missing in Exercise 5.3
 Errata: Remove part (a) in Exercise 5.6
 Errata: In Exercise 5.7, the 5% settling time should be 3 tau instead of 2 tau
 Errata: In Exercise 5.8, the initial condition is x 0
 Errata: In Exercise 5.8d, the left hand side of the first equation should be x(k+1)